William (Ned) Friedman
Director of the Arnold Arboretum
Faculty Fellow of the Arnold Arboretum
Organismic interfaces between developmental, phylogenetic and evolutionary biology; how patterns of morphology, anatomy and cell biology have evolved through the modification of developmental processes; Darwin's "abominable mystery"
Schoonderwoerd, K. and W.E. Friedman. 2016. Zygotic dormancy underlies prolonged seed development in Franklinia alatamaha (Theaceae): a most unusual case of reproductive phenology in angiosperms. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 70-83.
Friedman, W.E., M.S. Dosmann, T.M. Boland, D.E. Boufford, M.J. Donoghue, A. Gapinski, L. Hufford, P.W. Meyer and D.H. Pfister. 2016. Developing an exemplary collection: a vision for the next century at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Arnoldia 73(3): 2-18.
Friedman, W.E. 2015. Development and evolution of the female gametophyte and fertilization process in Welwitschia mirabilis. American Journal of Botany 102: 312-324.
Povilus, R.A., J. M. Losada and W.E. Friedman. 2015. Floral biology and ovule and seed ontogeny of Nymphaea thermarum, an autogamous water lily at the brink of extinction with potential as a model system for basal angiosperms. Annals of Botany 115: 211-226.
Wu, C.C., P.K. Diggle and W.E. Friedman. 2013. Kin recognition within a seed and the effect of genetic relatedness of an endosperm to its compatriot embryo on maize seed development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 2217-2222.
Friedman, W.E. and P.K. Diggle. 2011. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology. Plant Cell 23: 1194-1207
Friedman, W.E. 2009. The meaning of Darwin's "abominable mystery." American Journal of Botany 96: 5-21.
Friedman, W.E. and K.C. Ryerson. 2009. Reconstructing the ancestral female gametophyte of angiosperms: insights from Amborella and other ancient lineages of flowering plants. American Journal of Botany 96: 129-143. | pdf
Friedman, W.E. 2009. The meaning of Darwin's "abominable mystery." American Journal of Botany 96: 5-21. | pdf
Friedman, W.E. 2008. Hydatellaceae are water lilies with gymnospermous tendencies. Nature 453: 94-97. | pdf
Winther J.L. and W.E. Friedman. 2008. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Lycopodiaceae. New Phytologist 177: 790-801. | pdf
Friedman, W.E. 2006. Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution. Nature 441: 337-340. | pdf
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology